Nausea and vomiting
Chemotherapy drugs can cause nausea and vomiting because they irritate the stomach lining and the duodenum. This results in activating the part of the brain that triggers vomiting. It can also be triggered through intestinal blockage and inflammation that are likely chemotherapy effects.
Drugs That Cause Nausea and Vomiting
The severity of nausea and vomiting side effects vary by patient. Some of the chemotherapy drugs that are most likely to cause nausea and vomiting are cisplatin, dacarbazine, mechlorethamine, melphalan, daunorubicin, carmustine, procarbazine, lomustine and others.
Treatments to Reduce Nausea and Vomiting
It is a common practice to control nausea and vomiting by administering some drugs before chemotherapy treatment begins. Some drugs are administered alone or in combination with others to prevent or reduce nausea and vomiting side effects. These drugs are known as anti-emetics and include the following: Ativan (lorazepam), Compazine (prochlorperazine), Reglan (metoclopramide), Zofran (ondansetron), Phenergan (promethazine), and Aloxi (palonosetron).
There are some non-drug treatments to help control nausea and vomiting such as:
– ginger ale or ginger tablets
– soothing music
– relaxation exercises
Cells formed in hair follicles divide rapidly. It is this characteristic that makes hair loss, also known as alopecia, a common side effect during chemotherapy. The amount of hair loss varies among patients. The patient’s drug treatment schedule and drug dose can also determine the severity of hair loss. This side effect may start with a tingling sensation when the patient’s first strands of hair start to fall out. Hair loss can also occur on the patient’s legs, arm, face (eyebrows and eyelashes), and in the nose.
Drugs That Cause Hair Loss
The chemotherapy drugs that have shown to cause significant hair loss have been drugs such as Adriamycin (doxorubicin), Taxotere (docetaxel) and Taxol (paclitaxel). Other chemotherapy treatments that have shown to cause significantly less hair loss are drugs such as Oncovin (vincristine) and Gemzar (gemcitabine).
Treatments to Reduce Hair Loss
Recently, other treatments have been used that are referred to as “targeted agents” that do not cause hair loss since they are directed only at the existing cancer cells. These agents are Herceptin (trastuzumab) and Gleevec (imatinib).
In other cases where traditional chemotherapy drugs are used, the hair may start to grow back at its normal pace after the chemotherapy treatment has ended. Hair loss from chemotherapy is difficult to prevent with alternative methods; however, it is suggested to use mild hair products, soft brushes, and try to avoid harsh chemicals such as dying and perming products.
Patients can choose to use head coverings such as caps, scarves, hairpieces or wigs. The National Cancer Institute suggests that if a patient does choose to get a wig, it is advised to get it before the hair loss side effects so that it can be colored to match your natural hair color.
Patients should check with their health insurance company to make sure whether or not the cost of the wig or hairpiece is covered. Some policies do cover them as part of cancer treatment.